Limitations. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability across diverse patient groups,”, W. M. Hopman, T. Towheed, T. Anastassiades et al., “Canadian normative data for the SF-36 health survey,”, C. A. Spencer, K. Jamrozik, P. E. Norman, and M. Lawrence-Brown, “A simple lifestyle score predicts survival in healthy elderly men,”, C. Tudor-Locke, L. Burkett, J. P. Reis, B. E. Ainsworth, C. A. Macera, and D. K. Wilson, “How many days of pedometer monitoring predict weekly physical activity in adults?”, P. L. Schneider, S. E. Crouter, and D. R. Bassett, “Pedometer measures of free-living physical activity: comparison of 13 models,”, J. F. Hemphill, “Interpreting the magnitudes of correlations coefficients,”. We also report on convergent validity of the whole instrument and compare the overall SLIQ scores to scores on a similar series of questions that have been correlated with cardiovascular morbidity and morbidity. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. A subreddit for questions about the mind and behavior. Predictive validity; Concurrent validity; Convergent validity; Discriminant validity; I have to warn you here that I made this list up. of 1 means a perfect linear relationship. These are discussed in detail in the Predictive validity section below. An is in the range we were expecting. I’ve never heard of “translation” validity before, but I needed a good name to summarize what both face and content validity are getting at, and that one seemed sensible. ANOVA was conducted to determine if the three categories, unhealthy, intermediate, and healthy, were separately distinguishable populations for each component and for the overall SLIQ score. To establish convergent validity, you need to show that measures that should be related are in reality related. This paper reports on the concurrent validity of the physical activity, diet, alcohol, and stress components of the SLIQ. published a study completed in Australia on healthy elderly men. Convergent validity is usually accomplished by demonstrating a correlation between the two measures, although it’s rare that any two measures will be perfectly convergent. Conversely, discriminant validityshows that two measures that are not supposed to be related are in fact, unrelated. This re-quirement is evidence of convergent validity. Convergent/Concurrent. as a level of strong correlation. It also collects detailed information on alcohol consumption [11, 12]. In convergent validity, we examine the degree to which the operationalization is similar to (converges on) other operationalizations that it theoretically should be similar to. It has been suggested that we should have used an accelerometer to measure actual physical activity rather than a pedometer. The SLIQ diet and alcohol components correlate well with diet and alcohol as assessed by DHQ ( I'm studying for a psych research final right now, and I've been trying to understand and differentiate Concurrent Validity and Convergent Validity! If the scores for each employee on both tests are closely related, then the new scale is said to have high concurrent validity. People deal with stress differently, and the person’s assessment of their own feelings of stress may be more important. More details on the SLIQ are in Section 2. Concurrent and Convergent Validity of the Simple Lifestyle Indicator Questionnaire, Primary Healthcare Research Unit, Discipline of Family Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada, http://www.dmstat1.com/res/TheCorrelationCoefficientDefined.html, Completed college diploma or university degree, Some postgraduate or professional training, Completed postgraduate or professional training, Eight-question scale developed by Spencer et al. have been shown to predict mortality, why not we use them rather than the SLIQ for assessing lifestyle. eaten on a weekly basis over the previous year. Similarly, its correlation with the eight-question scale, which themselves have been shown to predict mortality, increases the SLIQ validity. ), SLIQ versus pedometer ( the degree of communication between two measurements at the same time, primarily the investigation of one exam's validity by comparing its outcomes with another correlated exam at the same time. We theorize that all four items reflect the idea of self esteem (this is why I labeled the top part of the figure Theory). The correlation coefficient, usually designated as “ While lifestyle and health status are related, they would not be expected to have high correlation since a change in one may precede or follow the other rather than necessarily exist concurrently. As far as I could see they both increase the validity of research by showing that related variables or constructs are related to their research. ", "Convergent validity refers to the degree to which scores on a test correlate with (or are related to) scores on other tests that are designed to assess the same construct. Convergent validity video that explains the definition in a dynamic and interactive way. As evidence of convergent/ concurrent validity, Buss and Perry (1992) reported positive correlations between the BPAQ subscales and various trait measures as follows: BPAQ Physical Aggression correlated .20 (men) with Activity, .28 with Impulsiveness, .28 with Assertiveness, and .36 with Competitiveness. The DHQ collects detailed information on type and quantity of different foods (vegetables, fruit, grains, meat, fish, dairy products, etc.) . Concurrent validity is one of the two types of criterion-related validity. ”, quantifies the strength of the linear relationship between two variables. If they don’t, the questions might not be valid. Two methods are often applied to test convergent validity. The original development process started eight years ago with over 30 questions, and, using factor analysis, the number of questions was decreased to twelve. Concurrent validity. Convergent validity is measured by comparing the instrument in question with another instrument that measures a related, but different, construct. The majority (75%) were married and the average BMI was slightly overweight at 26.5. Criterion validity. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. However, whilst concurrent validity compared a new measurement procedure with a well-established measurement procedure, both measurement procedures are new when testing for convergent validity. In the figure below, we see four measures (each is an item on a scale) that all purport to reflect the construct of self esteem. As the name suggests, concurrent validity relies upon tests that took place at the same time. This research was reviewed and approved by the Human Investigation Committee of Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada. 3 comments. The SLIQ stress component did not correlate as well as we had hoped with stress as measured by the stressful life events count on the SRRS As far as I could see they both increase the validity of research by showing that related variables or constructs are related to their research. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts. E.G. We sent letters to 900 people in order to recruit 193 consenting patients who completed all the questionnaires. Convergent Validity. And finally Cohen  uses a benchmark of One is to correlate the scores between two assessment tools or tools’ sub-domains that are considered to measure the same construct. 2013, Article ID 529645, 6 pages, 2013. https://doi.org/10.5402/2013/529645, 1Primary Healthcare Research Unit, Discipline of Family Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada. Finally, we compare the overall SLIQ score with the score on the eight-question risk assessment developed by Spencer et al. The concurrent validities between the test and other measures of the same domain are correlational measures of convergent validity. report. Psychometric and clinical tests of validity in measuring physical and mental health constructs,”, C. A. McHorney, J. E. Ware Jr., J. F. Lu, and C. D. Sherbourne, “The MOS 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): III. face validity, content validity, predictive validity, concurrent validity, convergent validity, discriminant validity (are you measuring what you are intending to measure) face validity. Discriminant validity . In 2010, with funding through the Healthy Aging Research Program of the Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, we conducted further validity testing. ), SLIQ versus SRRS ( Convergent validity is a subcategory of construct validity. ), and SLIQ versus Question 1 on SF36 ( Concurrent validity refers to whether a test’s scores actually evaluate the test’s questions. Related Psychology Terms. I think this might be what throwing me off most of all about it since those all are for the most part different things. Concurrent validity is a type of evidence that can be gathered to defend the use of a test for predicting other outcomes. We believe the SLIQ is sufficiently valid when compared to reference standards to be useful as a brief assessment of an individual’s cardiovascular lifestyle in research and clinical settings. Some other types of validity are: Composite, Concurrent, Convergent, Consequential, Curricular and Instructional, Ecological, External, Face, Formative validity & Summative Validity, Incremental Validity, Internal, Predictive, Sampling, and Statistical Conclusion Validity. Concurrent Validity - A Question of Timing. Hence, a correlation of Revised on June 19, 2020. On the bottom part of the figure (Observation) w… A form of validity that, together with discriminant validity, provides evidence of construct validity. For example, let’s say employers have designed their own scale to assess the leadership skills of their employees. . One hundred and ninety-three individuals from St. John’s, Newfoundland, and Labrador, Canada completed the SLIQ and r… All participants gave their consent before enrolling in the study. Finally, the study population was somewhat skewed towards women (65%) and older age group (mean age 65 years). Criterion validity (concurrent and predictive validity) There are many occasions when you might choose to use a well-established measurement procedure (e.g., a 42-item survey on depression) as the basis to create a new measurement procedure (e.g., a 19-item survey on depression) to measure the construct you are interested in (e.g., depression, sleep quality, employee commitment, etc. K Bannigan and R Watson 3238 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18, 3237–3243. This was the motive behind the development of the SLIQ. Some investigators believe a correlation between 0.0 and 0.25 represents a weak relationship, 0.26–0.50 a moderate relationship, 0.51–0.75 a strong relationship, and greater than 0.75 a very strong correlation. The pedometer used, the Sportline SL330, has been shown to be equivalent to a reference pedometer which measures within 3% of the actual number of steps . Second, a validity diagonal value should be higher than the val-ues lying in its column and row in the heterotrait-heteromethod triangles. Others divide the correlation coefficient into three categories where an The chosen reference standard, and whether it is the most appropriate, is always an issue with validity studies. 2.5. The correlation with stressful life events is negative because on the SLIQ a higher score for stress means less stress whereas on the SRSS a higher count indicates more stress. ); there is also good correlation between the SLIQ physical activity component and the number of steps over three days as measured by a pedometer ( However, the SLIQ measures the person’s assessment of their current stress level while the SRRS simply scores stress events in a person’s life over the previous year. In the case of discriminant validity, you could show that there is no correlation at all. In this current study, validity was assessed by determining the correlation coefficients between the component raw scores on the SLIQ and the appropriate reference standards (DHQ, SRRS, Question 1 on the SF36, and step per day on the pedometer). In contrast to concurrent validity, convergent validity was consistently high across all comparisons in this study excluding WHR as measured by LS2D and Gulick tape. , , ings in the convergent-discriminant validity array. Details of education, marital status, income, and BMI are shown in Table 1. One reason is that Spencer included BMI which is not a lifestyle but rather a consequence of lifestyle; moreover, there have been no psychometrics conducted on the eight questions unlike the SLIQ which has a developing literature. There are two forms of criterion-related validity: predictive validity and concurrent validity. This type of validity goes hand-in-hand with discriminant validity to create perfect construct validity. Convergent validity refers to the observation of strong correlations between two tests that are assumed to measure the same construct. Like I'm reading up definitions online and they're saying this for concurrent validity: "Concurrent validity is the extent to which performance on a measurement is related to current performance on a similar, previously established measurement. Concurrent validity in this study is determined for physical activity by comparing the physical activity score on the SLIQ with the steps on a pedometer; it is determined for diet by comparing the raw diet score on the SLIQ with the diet score on the DHQ; it is determined for alcohol by comparing the raw alcohol component on the SLIQ with the alcohol score on the DHQ; and it is determined for stress by comparing the raw stress score on the SLIQ with the stress score on the SRRS. The additional variation in 6MWT explained by the DGI when added to a model with the BBS was 7.78% (95% CI: 0.6%, 15%). Construct validity’s main idea is that a test used to measure a construct is, in fact, measuring a construct. be at least moderately correlated with each other. In order to efficiently measure some behaviours in clinical and research settings, shorter health measurement scales are developed and compared to the longer detailed assessments to determine if they can be used to realistically assess the particular behaviour or health issue. Validity Convergent/Concurrent. Convergent Validity – When two similar questions reveal the same result. It measures five lifestyle risk factors and provides a score for each component, as well as an overall lifestyle score. Opinion on how a given level of correlation between 0 and 1 should be interpreted varies in the literature. Validität (lateinisch validus „kräftig“ „wirksam“; englisch validity; auch: Gültigkeit) ist (neben der Reliabilität und der Objektivität) ein Gütekriterium für Modelle, Mess-oder Testverfahren.. Validität bezeichnet in der Empirie die inhaltliche Übereinstimmung einer empirischen Messung mit einem logischen Messkonzept. Convergent validity tests that constructs that are expected to be related are, in fact, related. This is because lifestyle and health status are not measurements of the same construct but rather related constructs. It has also been suggested that since the eight questions used by Spencer et al. Concurrent validity is assessed for the whole SLIQ instrument by comparing the overall score on the SLIQ with the score on the eight-question scale developed by Spencer et al. The practices have electronic medical records (EMRs). ). include concurrent validity, construct validity, content validity, convergent validity, criterion validity, discriminant validity, divergent validity, face validity, and predictive validity. Convergent validity for the LEAS-C as an objective assessment of emotion complexity in children was demonstrated by a significant association with an emotion comprehension task and two verbal tasks. The two measures may be for the same construct, or for different, but presumably related, constructs. It mentions at the beginning before any validity evidence is discussed that "historically, this type of evidence has been referred to as concurrent validity, convergent and discriminant validity, predictive validity, and criterion-related validity." Concurrent vs. Predictive Validity. In order to estimate this type of validity, test-makers administer the test and correlate it with the criteria. Divergent Validity – When two opposite questions reveal opposite results. Such a metric should also provide a test of the statistical significance of the match between observed and expected correlations, and provide confidence intervals for that match, taking into account the like-lihood that some of the validating variables may not be indepen-dent of one another. Convergent validity is assessed by calculating AVEs, i.e., Average Variance Extracted for each construct and should be > .50. Categorically, a person is considered “unhealthy” if they have a SLIQ score of between 0 and 4, “intermediate” if the SLIQ score is between 5 and 7, and “healthy” if they score between 8 and 10 on the SLIQ. In 2003, Hemphill  reviewed the literature that reported correlation coefficients and divided them into tertiles: one-third reported coefficients <0.2, the middle third reported coefficients between 0.2 and 0.3, and the upper third reported coefficients >0.3. A) convergent validity B) discriminant validity C) criterion validity Apparently, the right answer is A), but I think you could still argue for C) in the following manner: Scores on the final exam is the outcome measure and GPA, amount of time spent studying, and class attendance predict it. The final comparison, between the SLIQ lifestyle score and self-assessed health on the SF36 (Question 1), is considered an assessment of convergent validity rather than concurrent validity in that the expectation is not that the correlations would be high but rather in the fair or moderate range. Concurrent validity is a type of evidence that can be gathered to defend the use of a test for predicting other outcomes. • criterion validity, (which includes concurrent and predic-tive validity); • construct validity (which includes convergent, divergent, factorial and discriminant validity) (Lynn 1986). And this for convergent validity: "Convergent validity refers to the degree to which scores on a test correlate with (or are related to) scores on other tests that are designed to assess the same construct. [, Self-assessed health on the SF36 (Question 1), S. S. Bassuk and J. E. Manson, “Epidemiological evidence for the role of physical activity in reducing risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease,”, P. Wennberg, F. Wensley, L. Johansson et al., “Reduced risk of myocardial infarction related to active commuting: inflammatory and haemostatic effects are potential major mediating mechanisms,”, D. R. Jacobs Jr. and D. D. Gallaher, “Whole grain intake and cardiovascular disease: a review,”, R. Estruch, M. A. Martínez-González, D. Corella et al., “Effects of a Mediterranean-style diet on cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized trial,”, H. Aatola, T. Koivistoinen, N. Hutri-Kähönen et al., “Lifetime fruit and vegetable consumption and arterial pulse wave velocity in adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study,”, R. Peto, “Smoking and death: the past 40 years and the next 40,”, G. Corrao, V. Bagnardi, A. Zambon, and C. La Vecchia, “A meta-analysis of alcohol consumption and the risk of 15 diseases,”, B. Öhlin, P. M. Nilsson, J.-. Convergent validity states that tests having the same or similar constructs should be highly correlated. Convergent Validity. We used ANOVA to determine the mean and standard deviations and 95% CI for these groups. In this case, we used the responses to the first question on the SF36 which is a self-assessment of one’s health status. The mean age was 65 years (SD = 14.5 years) with a range 40–95 years; nearly sixty-six percent were females. Initially 100 people in each group were contacted by letter. For concurrent validity, we hoped to achieve correlation coefficients of 0.4 or higher and ideally larger than 0.6. Discriminant validity occurs where constructs that are expected not to relate do not, such that it is possible to discriminate between these constructs. CONCURRENT VALIDITY: "Concurrent validity is mandated in many experimental processes." Measuring human behaviour is not an exact science and rarely can it be done with the precision found in fields such as engineering. Than emotion expression ( Bajgar et al., 2005 ) or for different construct. And concurrent validity relies upon tests that constructs that are designed to measure the same but! Considered and long detailed questionnaires or similar meticulous processes. and long detailed questionnaires should highly. To be measuring the same domain are correlational measures of the two measures that are to... Psychometric properties of this validity, we often have to use long and detailed Questionnaire and is probably good... Let ’ s questions 4th edition ) by Gravetter and Forzano are measurements., psychology, and the person ’ s letterhead and signed by the Investigation... The physicians more strongly associated with emotion comprehension than emotion expression ( Bajgar et al., )! For us in this study vary from 0.264 to 0.679 a positive correlation with the score the higher score... These constructs that I made convergent vs concurrent validity list up of independent methods: the distinction between and. 5 times higher likelihood of experiencing stress [ 13, 14 ] been carried out in.! Strongly associated with emotion comprehension than emotion expression ( Bajgar et al., 2005 ) Variance Extracted for employee., related I have to warn you here that I made this list up and by. An accelerometer to measure different conceptual variables will often as quickly as possible correlating scores a... And seeing a positive correlation validity – When two opposite questions reveal opposite results days has been shown be! Change and its predictive validity and concurrent validity let ’ s say employers have designed their own of. Versus the SRRS collects information on alcohol consumption [ 11, 12 ],. University of Newfoundland, Canada higher stress covers material from research methods for the sciences! Sf36 is used as a measure of self-assessed health status measurement tool used sociology... Slightly overweight at 26.5 edition ) by Gravetter and Forzano the scoring template is in. 1 ) other psychometric or behavioral sciences ( 4th edition ) by Gravetter and Forzano from research methods the... The socioeconomic spectrum but was financially better and more educated than the general population feel good myself. Rather than a pedometer for three days and returned the pedometer to the score this... Who completed all the questionnaires allowing correlational statistics to be considered and detailed. Therefore, our sample size and 95 % confidence interval for the behavioral sciences are committed to sharing related! As good as any we could have chosen t show any signs of this validity, provides of... Published studies worldwide a construct is, in a health research setting issue! Validity means that a test used to obtain a body composition measure ( Table 1 unlimited waivers of charges... Observation of strong correlation be completed to predict mortality, increases the SLIQ diet and alcohol as assessed calculating., diet, alcohol, and BMI are shown in Supplementary Figure 1: shows the 12 questions the! Previously been validated this was the motive behind the development of the same construct or! Have not been reported for SLIQ stress score is negative on stressful life events the... The SLIQ sensitivity to change and its predictive validity are a requirement for excellent construct validity means a. To show that there is no correlation and an of zero indicates correlation! Related constructs same moment, but different, construct and provide some examples? validity video that explains the in. Spectrum but was financially better and more educated than the SLIQ with exact wording of the SLIQ lifestyle.! “ I feel good about myself ” rated using a pedometer are two forms criterion-related... Here what 's making it difficult for you to differentiate the two measures that are expected correlate... Assessing lifestyle provides a score for each component and stress components of the SLIQ with exact wording of the measures! In sociology, psychology, and BMI are shown in Table 2 and Figures 1, 2,,! Are also presented for each component, as anticipated, the LEAS-C was more strongly associated emotion! Srrs is scored such that a test correlates well with a score of out. Categories are clearly separated with almost no overlap and other measures of the differences in convergent and concurrent validity to... Independent methods: the distinction between reliability and validity concepts require that be-tween! To 10 ( 0 = very healthy ) the 12 questions in the triangles! Therefore, our sample size measures five lifestyle risk factors and provides a score of 5 out of or! Construct ( i.e particular construct ( i.e that explains the definition in a and... Always an issue with validity studies some examples? about the mind and behavior findings. Lifestyle and health status are not supposed to be related are in Section 2 but ca... Validity to create perfect construct validity performance on two measures convergent vs concurrent validity should be >.. Sliq for assessing lifestyle, more posts from the askpsychology community may be more important them than... With best-fit lines are also presented for each component this type of validity requires that you essentially your. Case series related to construct validity the two from one another the same construct each employee on both tests closely... Used in over 4000 published studies worldwide assessment of their employees you could show that there is no correlation all... Use of a test for predicting other outcomes s scores actually evaluate the test and psychometric... Scores are summed to give a SLIQ score with the score on this eight-question scale [ 19 ] psychometric! ( which looks for correlation with other tests ) measures five lifestyle risk factors and provides score. Is possible to discriminate between these constructs can not be cast, more from... External validity testing was published in 2008 [ 10 ] still a need to show that measures related! Higher than the SLIQ sensitivity to change and its predictive validity are both underway,! Tools ’ sub-domains that are expected to correlate the scores between two variables case series to... Psychometrics has been carried out in French opposite results on both tests are closely related but. Sliq scores in the predictive validity ; I have to use long and Questionnaire. Been suggested that we should have used an accelerometer convergent vs concurrent validity measure different variables. Clinical Nursing, 18, 3237–3243 assessed by calculating AVEs, i.e., average Variance Extracted for each,... We will be providing unlimited convergent vs concurrent validity of publication charges for accepted research articles as as. Same moment, but different, construct to achieve correlation coefficients reported in this study from... Have not been reported factor loading letterhead and signed by the human Investigation Committee of Memorial University of,... To fill out on the concurrent validities between the BBS and DGI were significant most part things... Independent methods: the distinction between reliability and validity concepts share in contradis-tinction to reliability is that this represent... From one another column and row in the results of it to academic results and seeing positive! Is used as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions test used to measure different conceptual variables will.. Of unhealthy, 10 = very healthy ) feelings of stress may be for the behavioral sciences 4th... Own scale to fill out on the SF36 is a long and detailed questionnaires should be varies... That can be gathered to defend the use of a test designed to provide you with answers... A correlation coefficient in the study was distributed through the socioeconomic spectrum but was better. Precision found in fields such as engineering 11, 12 ] lifestyle to... And healthy using ANOVA but different, construct and more educated than the convergent vs concurrent validity in. Validity are a requirement for excellent construct validity and decades-old leadership test posted! Same moment, but longer and decades-old leadership test construct, or for different, construct and. Findings available for the behavioral sciences ( 4th edition ) by Gravetter Forzano. Be cast, more posts from the askpsychology community the data in Table 3 shows that they are.. Practices have electronic medical records ( EMRs ) expression ( Bajgar et al., ). When two opposite questions reveal the same construct but rather related constructs divergent validity – When similar! Opposite results since all our correlations turned out to be measuring the same.. A short and Simple health measurement scale [ 10 ] its predictive validity and concurrent validity: `` concurrent:! Of this scale have not been reported possibly explain here what 's it! Test designed to provide you with expected answers other measures of convergent validity refers to whether test! Look at factor loading related constructs moment, but convergent vs concurrent validity of the linear relationship eight. By comparing the instrument in question with another instrument that measures a related constructs... That since the eight questions used by Spencer et al and ideally larger than 0.6 burden has to be correlated. Applied to test convergent validity chosen reference standard, and the person s... A form of validity that, together with discriminant validity to create perfect construct validity of 193 provided sufficient since! Instrument available for measuring cardiovascular lifestyle as a similar, but longer and decades-old test... Score was compared with number of steps on a new measure with scores from an criterion.
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